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    Eindhoven einwohner

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    Die Einwohnerentwicklung von Eindhoven sowie verwandte Informationen und Dienste (Wikipedia, Google, Bilder). Name, Status, Einwohner Zensus Apr. Nijmegen - Einwohner. Nijmegen 7. Groningen - Einwohner. Groningen 5. Eindhoven - Einwohner. Eindhoven. Eindhoven ([ˈɛintˌɦoːvə(n)], Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören) ist eine Stadt in der Provinz Heute ist Eindhoven mit etwas mehr als Einwohnern die fünftgrößte Stadt der Niederlande und gilt als Technologiezentrum im Süden . Französisches Kaiserreich Erstes Kaiserreich — Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Ohne Zweifel ist der Königstag eines der beliebtesten Feste unter den Einheimischen. Mit der Auflösung der Niederländischen Antillen erhielten die Karibikinseln am Hier bündeln sich die Strecken aus dem Norden und Süden des Landes. Später kam Liedermacher Boudewijn de Groot auf. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Nach fünftägigem Kampf zwangen die deutschen Truppen am Abend des Die Kommissare des Königs und die Bürgermeister werden mit königlichem Beschluss von der Regierung ernannt, im Allgemeinen auf Vorschlag der Staten oder des Gemeinderates. Wir verfügen über mehr als Auch beim Ausbruch des Zweiten Weltkriegs versuchte die niederländische Regierung zunächst, das Land aus dem Krieg herauszuhalten. An das Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs wird am 5. Die Morde führten zu heftigen Debatten über das Selbstverständnis der niederländischen Gesellschaft. Diese wurden jedoch mit Unterstützung von Wilhelm von Oranien bereits wieder aufgebaut.

    einwohner eindhoven -

    Mittelreich Lotharii Regnum — Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Hier lebte und arbeitete einer der berühmtesten niederländischen Cartoonisten und Zeichner. Es lohnt sich, wenn du deine Reise nach Eindhoven im Herbst planst. Gemeinden der Provinz Nordbrabant. Mai um Fast jeden Bürger züchtet Marihuana Und die feiern sie ausgelassen. August die Unabhängigkeit aus. Eindhoven ist der wichtigste Produktions- und Forschungsstandort der Firma Philips. Durch die Studentinnen und Studenten der Technischen Universität Eindhoven und durch einige höhere Schulen hat Eindhoven einen relativ niedrigen Altersdurchschnitt. Einhoven in Holland ist nicht nur spanned, champions l gleichzeitig auch book of ra mit echtgeld spielen vielfältig. Besonderer Urlaub in Dallas in Texas. Im Mittelniederländischen bezeichneten die Adjektive duutsc oder dietsc entsprechend dem eindhoven einwohner deutsch die im Volk gesprochenen westgermanischen Mundarten und dienten der Abgrenzung dieser Mundarten gegenüber dem Lateinischen, der Sprache von Verwaltung, Wissenschaft und Kirche. Das Vermögen pro erwachsene Person beträgt Der Wiederaufbau und der Bau eines neuen Schlosses dauerten bis Liste der Städte in den Niederlanden. Warst du schon in Inverness?

    The first is the area surrounding Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station , where several newspapers like De Telegraaf have their offices.

    Also, Deloitte , the Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf municipal public transport company and the Dutch tax offices Belastingdienst are located there.

    The third is the area surrounding Amsterdam Amstel railway station. The tallest building in Amsterdam, the Rembrandt Tower , is situated there, as is the headquarters of Philips.

    The Port of Amsterdam is the fourth largest port in Europe, the 38th largest port in the world and the second largest port in the Netherlands by metric tons of cargo.

    Amsterdam has the biggest cruise port in the Netherlands with more than cruise ships every year. In the new lock in IJmuiden will open; the port will then be able to grow to million tonnes in capacity.

    It is near Dam Square in the city centre. Amsterdam is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, receiving more than 4.

    This can be attributed to an increasing number of European visitors. Two-thirds of the hotels are located in the city's centre.

    For example, the year was designated "Rembrandt ", to celebrate the th birthday of Rembrandt van Rijn. Some hotels offer special arrangements or activities during these years.

    The average number of guests per year staying at the four campsites around the city range from 12, to 65, De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is a designated area for legalised prostitution and is Amsterdam's largest and most well known red-light district.

    This neighbourhood has become a famous attraction for tourists. It consists of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights.

    Shops in Amsterdam range from large high end department stores such as De Bijenkorf founded in to small specialty shops. Amsterdam's high-end shops are found in the streets P.

    Hooftstraat and Cornelis Schuytstraat , which are located in the vicinity of the Vondelpark. One of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval Kalverstraat in the heart of the city.

    Other shopping areas include the Negen Straatjes and Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat. Negen Straatjes are nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel , the concentric canal system of Amsterdam.

    The Negen Straatjes differ from other shopping districts with the presence of a large diversity of privately owned shops. The Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk were voted best shopping street in the Netherlands in These streets have as the Negen Straatjes a large diversity of privately owned shops.

    But as the Negen Straatjes are dominated by fashion stores the Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk offer a very wide variety of all kinds of stores, just to name some specialties: The city also features a large number of open-air markets such as the Albert Cuyp Market , Westerstraat-markt, Ten Katemarkt, and Dappermarkt.

    Some of these markets are held on a daily basis, like the Albert Cuypmarkt and the Dappermarkt. Others, like the Westerstraatmarkt, are held on a weekly basis.

    Amsterdam has its garment centre in the World Fashion Center. Buildings which formerly housed brothels in the red light district have been converted to ateliers for young fashion designers, AKA eagle fuel.

    During the later part of the 16th-century Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer Chamber of rhetoric organised contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama.

    In , Amsterdam opened its first theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as In the 18th century, French theatre became popular.

    While Amsterdam was under the influence of German music in the 19th century there were few national opera productions; the Hollandse Opera of Amsterdam was built in for the specific purpose of promoting Dutch opera.

    At the end of this century, the Rijksmuseum and Stedelijk Museum were built. With the 20th century came cinema, radio and television.

    Many people who work in the television industry live in Amsterdam. The most important museums of Amsterdam are located on the Museumplein Museum Square , located at the southwestern side of the Rijksmuseum.

    It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds of the former World's fair. The northeastern part of the square is bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum.

    In front of the Rijksmuseum on the square itself is a long, rectangular pond. This is transformed into an ice rink in winter.

    The southwestern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat, which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam. The Concertgebouw is situated across this street from the square.

    To the southeast of the square are situated a number of large houses, one of which contains the American consulate. A parking garage can be found underneath the square, as well as a supermarket.

    The Museumplein is covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northeastern part of the square which is covered with gravel.

    The current appearance of the square was realised in , when the square was remodelled. The square itself is the most prominent site in Amsterdam for festivals and outdoor concerts, especially in the summer.

    Plans were made in to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of Amsterdam are not happy with its current appearance.

    The Rijksmuseum possesses the largest and most important collection of classical Dutch art. Its collection consists of nearly one million objects.

    Rembrandt's masterpiece The Night Watch is one of top pieces of art of the museum. Aside from paintings, the collection consists of a large variety of decorative art.

    This ranges from Delftware to giant doll-houses from the 17th century. The architect of the gothic revival building was P. The museum underwent a year, million euro renovation starting in The full collection was reopened to the public on 13 April and the Rijksmuseum has established itself as the most visited museum in Amsterdam with 2.

    Van Gogh lived in Amsterdam for a short while and there is a museum dedicated to his work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern buildings in this area of Amsterdam.

    The building was designed by Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is displayed.

    A new building was added to the museum in This building, known as the performance wing, was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa.

    Its purpose is to house temporary exhibitions of the museum. Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum.

    This is Amsterdam's most important museum of modern art. The museum is as old as the square it borders and was opened in The permanent collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan , Karel Appel , and Kazimir Malevich.

    After renovations lasting several years the museum opened in September with a new composite extension that has been called 'The Bathtub' due to its resemblance to one.

    Amsterdam contains many other museums throughout the city. The modern-styled Nemo is dedicated to child-friendly science exhibitions. Amsterdam's musical culture includes a large collection of songs which treat the city nostalgically and lovingly.

    The song "Aan de Amsterdamse grachten" "On the canals of Amsterdam" was performed and recorded by many artists, including John Kraaijkamp Sr.

    In the s Johnny Jordaan rose to fame with "Geef mij maar Amsterdam" "I prefer Amsterdam" , which praises the city above all others explicitly Paris ; Jordaan sang especially about his own neighbourhood, the Jordaan "Bij ons in de Jordaan".

    Its main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts for big audiences. Many famous international artists have performed there.

    Two other notable venues, Paradiso and the Melkweg are located near the Leidseplein. Jazz has a strong following in Amsterdam, with the Bimhuis being the premier venue.

    In , Ziggo Dome was opened, also near Amsterdam Arena, a state-of-the-art indoor music arena. AFAS Live is also host to many electronic dance music festivals, alongside many other venues.

    Each year in October, the city hosts the Amsterdam Dance Event ADE which is one of the leading electronic music conferences and one of the biggest club festivals for electronic music in the world, attracting over , visitors each year.

    Amsterdam has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. It is considered by critics to be a concert hall with some of the best acoustics in the world.

    Some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over ,, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world.

    Therefore, the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera , a word originally coined by protesters against it very construction: This huge modern complex, opened in , lies in the former Jewish neighbourhood at Waterlooplein next to the river Amstel.

    Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ is a concert hall, which is situated in the IJ near the central station. Its concerts perform mostly modern classical music.

    Located adjacent to it, is the Bimhuis , a concert hall for improvised and Jazz music. The Stadsschouwburg at the Leidseplein is the home base of Toneelgroep Amsterdam.

    The current building dates from Most plays are performed in the Grote Zaal Great Hall. The normal programme of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms.

    The Stadsschouwburg is currently being renovated and expanded. The third theatre space, to be operated jointly with next door Melkweg , will open in late or early The recently re-opened DeLaMar Theater houses the more commercial plays and musicals.

    A new theatre has also moved into Amsterdam scene in , joining other established venues: Theater Amsterdam is situated in the west part of Amsterdam, on the Danzigerkade.

    It is housed in a modern building with a panoramic view over the harbour. The theatre is the first ever purpose-built venue to showcase a single play entitled ANNE, the play based on Anne Frank's life.

    On the east side of town there is a small theatre in a converted bath house, the Badhuistheater. The theatre often has English programming.

    The Netherlands has a tradition of cabaret or kleinkunst , which combines music, storytelling, commentary, theatre and comedy. Cabaret dates back to the s and artists like Wim Kan , Wim Sonneveld and Toon Hermans were pioneers of this form of art in the Netherlands.

    In Amsterdam is the Kleinkunstacademie English: The English spoken comedy scene was established with the founding of Boom Chicago in They have their own theatre at Leidseplein.

    Amsterdam is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. They range from large and modern to small and cozy. A common sight on the Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine.

    Many restaurants can be found in Amsterdam as well. Since Amsterdam is a multicultural city, a lot of different ethnic restaurants can be found. Restaurants range from being rather luxurious and expensive to being ordinary and affordable.

    The two main nightlife areas for tourists are the Leidseplein and the Rembrandtplein. Bimhuis located near the Central Station, with its rich programming hosting the best in the field is considered one of the best jazz clubs in the world.

    In , there were festivals and events in Amsterdam. Famous festivals and events in Amsterdam include: On Koninginnedag—that was held each year on 30 April—hundreds of thousands of people travel to Amsterdam to celebrate with the city's residents and Koningsdag is held on 27 April.

    The entire city becomes overcrowded with people buying products from the freemarket, or visiting one of the many music concerts.

    The yearly Holland Festival attracts international artists and visitors from all over Europe. It offers previews of many different artists, such as musicians and poets, who perform on podia.

    The stadium Johan Cruyff Arena is the home of Ajax. It is located in the south-east of the city next to the new Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA railway station.

    Before moving to their current location in , Ajax played their regular matches in De Meer Stadion. The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events, such as the Amsterdam Marathon.

    The ice hockey team Amstel Tijgers play in the Jaap Eden ice rink. The team competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league. Speed skating championships have been held on the metre lane of this ice rink.

    Amsterdam holds two American football franchises: There are three field hockey teams: The basketball team MyGuide Amsterdam competes in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid.

    Since the city of Amsterdam honours the best sportsmen and women at the Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards, in The city of Amsterdam is a municipality under the Dutch Municipalities Act.

    It is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a mayor. Since , the municipality of Amsterdam has gradually been divided into semi-autonomous boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts'.

    Over time, a total of 15 boroughs were created. In May , under a major reform, the number of Amsterdam boroughs was reduced to eight: Amsterdam-Centrum covering the city centre including the canal belt , Amsterdam-Noord consisting of the neighbourhoods north of the IJ lake , Amsterdam-Oost in the east, Amsterdam-Zuid in the south, Amsterdam-West in the west, Amsterdam Nieuw-West in the far west, Amsterdam Zuidoost in the southeast, and Westpoort covering the Port of Amsterdam area.

    As with all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a mayor burgemeester.

    The mayor is a member of the municipal executive board, but also has individual responsibilies in maintaining public order.

    On 27 June Femke Halsema former member of House of Representatives for GroenLinks from to was appointed as the first women to be Mayor of Amsterdam by the King's Commissioner of North Holland for a six-year term after being nominated by the Amsterdam municipal council.

    On 18 September it was announced by Eberhard van der Laan in an open letter to Amsterdam citizens that Kajsa Ollongren would take up his office as acting Mayor of Amsterdam with immediate effect due to ill health.

    Unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is subdivided into eight boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts', a system that was implemented gradually in the s to improve local governance.

    The boroughs are responsible for many activities that had previously been run by the central city. In , the number of Amsterdam boroughs reached fifteen.

    Fourteen of those had their own district council deelraad , elected by a popular vote. The fifteenth, Westpoort , covers the harbour of Amsterdam and had very few residents.

    Therefore, it was governed by the central municipal council. Under the borough system, municipal decisions are made at borough level, except for those affairs pertaining to the whole city such as major infrastructure projects, which are the jurisdiction of the central municipal authorities.

    In , the borough system was restructured, in which many smaller boroughs merged into larger boroughs.

    In , under a reform of the Dutch Municipalities Act, the Amsterdam boroughs lost much of their autonomous status, as their district councils were abolished.

    The municipal council of Amsterdam voted to maintain the borough system by replacing the district councils with smaller, but still directly elected district committees bestuurscommissies.

    Under a municipal ordinance, the new district committees were granted responsibilities through delegation of regulatory and executive powers by the central municipal council.

    Colloquially, some areas within the municipality, such as the town of Durgerdam , may not be considered part of Amsterdam. Statistics Netherlands uses three other definitions of Amsterdam: The city region is similar to Greater Amsterdam but includes the municipalities of Zaanstad and Wormerland.

    It excludes Graft-De Rijp. The smallest of these areas is the municipality of Amsterdam with a population of , in The largest area by population, the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area Dutch: Metropoolregio Amsterdam , has a population of 2,33 million.

    Amsterdam is part of the conglomerate metropolitan area Randstad , with a total population of 6,, inhabitants. Of these various metropolitan area configurations, only the Stadsregio Amsterdam City Region of Amsterdam has a formal governmental status.

    Its responsibities include regional spatial planning and the metropolitan public transport concessions.

    Under the Dutch Constitution , Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands. Since the constitutional revision, the constitution mentions "Amsterdam" and "capital" in chapter 2, article The king's confirmation by oath and his coronation take place in "the capital Amsterdam" " de hoofdstad Amsterdam ".

    The ceremony traditionally takes place at the Nieuwe Kerk on Dam Square , immediately after the former monarch has signed the act of abdication at the nearby Royal Palace of Amsterdam.

    Normally, however, the Parliament sits in The Hague , the city which has historically been the seat of the Dutch government , the Dutch monarchy , and the Dutch supreme court.

    Foreign embassies are also located in The Hague. The coat of arms of Amsterdam is composed of several historical elements. First and centre are three St Andrew's crosses , aligned in a vertical band on the city's shield although Amsterdam's patron saint was Saint Nicholas.

    These St Andrew's crosses can also be found on the cityshields of neighbours Amstelveen and Ouder-Amstel. This part of the coat of arms is the basis of the flag of Amsterdam , flown by the city government, but also as civil ensign for ships registered in Amsterdam.

    Second is the Imperial Crown of Austria. In , out of gratitude for services and loans, Maximilian I awarded Amsterdam the right to adorn its coat of arms with the king's crown.

    Then, in , this was replaced with Maximilian's imperial crown when he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In the early years of the 17th century, Maximilian's crown in Amsterdam's coat of arms was again replaced, this time with the crown of Emperor Rudolph II , a crown that became the Imperial Crown of Austria.

    The lions date from the late 16th century, when city and province became part of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

    Last came the city's official motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig "Heroic, Determined, Merciful" , bestowed on the city in by Queen Wilhelmina , in recognition of the city's bravery during the Second World War.

    Currently, there are sixteen tram routes and five metro routes. All are operated by municipal public transport operator Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf GVB , which also runs the city bus network.

    Four fare-free GVB ferries carry pedestrians and cyclists across the IJ lake to the borough of Amsterdam-Noord , and two fare-charging ferries run east and west along the harbour.

    There are also privately operated water taxis, a water bus, a boat sharing operation, electric rental boats and canal cruises, that transport people along Amsterdam's waterways.

    Regional buses, and some suburban buses, are operated by Connexxion and EBS. Amsterdam was intended in to be the hub, a kind of Kilometre Zero , of the highway system of the Netherlands , [] with freeways numbered One to Eight planned to originate from the city.

    The A3 to Rotterdam was cancelled in in order to conserve the Groene Hart. Road A8 , leading north to Zaandam and the A10 Ringroad were opened between and The A10 ringroad surrounding the city connects Amsterdam with the Dutch national network of freeways.

    Interchanges on the A10 allow cars to enter the city by transferring to one of the 18 city roads , numbered S through to S These city roads are regional roads without grade separation , and sometimes without a central reservation.

    Most are accessible by cyclists. The S Centrumring is a smaller ringroad circumnavigating the city's centre. In the city centre, driving a car is discouraged.

    Parking fees are expensive, and many streets are closed to cars or are one-way. Amsterdam is served by ten stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen Dutch Railways.

    The stations for local services are: Amsterdam Centraal is also an international railway station. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is less than 20 minutes by train from Amsterdam Centraal station and is served by domestic and international intercity trains, such as Thalys , Eurostar and Intercity Brussel.

    Schiphol is the largest airport in the Netherlands, the third largest in Europe, and the 14th-largest in the world in terms of passengers. It handles over 68 million passengers per year and is the home base of four airlines, KLM , Transavia , Martinair and Arkefly.

    Amsterdam is one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the world and is a centre of bicycle culture with good facilities for cyclists such as bike paths and bike racks , and several guarded bike storage garages fietsenstalling which can be used.

    In , there were about 1,, bicycles in Amsterdam outnumbering the amount of citizens in the city. Amsterdam has two universities: Other institutions for higher education include an art school — Gerrit Rietveld Academie , a university of applied sciences — the Hogeschool van Amsterdam , and the Amsterdamse Hogeschool voor de Kunsten.

    Amsterdam's International Institute of Social History is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions concerning social history , and especially the history of the labour movement.

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    The only way to leave a review is to first make a booking. That's how we know our reviews come from real guests who have stayed at the property.

    When guests stay at the property, they check out how quiet the room is, how friendly the staff is, and more. Insgesamt führen fünf Autobahnen durch Eindhoven.

    Auch im niederländischen Autobahnnetz bündeln sich hier Strecken aus sowohl dem Norden und Süden als auch aus dem Westen des Landes.

    Weiterhin liegt Eindhoven direkt an der wichtigen E Den städtischen Busverkehr betreibt das Busunternehmen Hermes. Gemeinden der Provinz Nordbrabant.

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    Die Befreiung kommt für die Eindhovener am Seit einigen Jahren ist nederlandstalige muziek , Musik in der Landessprache, sehr erfolgreich. Durch die Studentinnen und Studenten der Technischen Universität Eindhoven und durch einige höhere Schulen hat Eindhoven einen relativ niedrigen Altersdurchschnitt. April von fast drei Generationen der Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Den städtischen Busverkehr betreibt das Busunternehmen Hermes. Frankreich Erste Republik —

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    Rent out your place on Booking. No registration required Loading Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May and took control of the country.

    Some Amsterdam citizens sheltered Jews, thereby exposing themselves and their families to a high risk of being imprisoned or sent to concentration camps.

    More than , Dutch Jews were deported to Nazi concentration camps , of whom some 60, lived in Amsterdam.

    In response, the Dutch Communist Party organised the February strike attended by , people to protest against the raids. Perhaps the most famous deportee was the young Jewish girl Anne Frank , who died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

    Many citizens travelled to the countryside to forage. Dogs, cats, raw sugar beets, and Tulip bulbs—cooked to a pulp—were consumed to stay alive.

    Because of the war and other events of the 20th century, almost the entire city centre had fallen into disrepair. As society was changing, [ clarification needed ] politicians and other influential figures made plans to redesign large parts of it.

    There was an increasing demand for office buildings, and also for new roads, as the automobile became available to most people. Further plans were to build a new highway above the metro to connect Amsterdam Centraal and city centre with other parts of the city.

    The required large-scale demolitions began in Amsterdam's former Jewish neighbourhood. Smaller streets, such as the Jodenbreestraat, were widened and almost all of their houses were demolished.

    At the peak of the demolition, the Nieuwmarktrellen Nieuwmarkt Riots broke out; [46] the rioters expressed their fury about the demolition caused by the restructuring of the city.

    As a result, the demolition was stopped, and the highway was never built; only the metro was completed.

    Only a few streets remained widened. The new city hall was built on the almost completely demolished Waterlooplein. Meanwhile, large private organisations, such as Stadsherstel Amsterdam , were founded with the aim of restoring the entire city centre.

    Although the success of this struggle is visible today, efforts for further restoration are still ongoing. Many of its buildings have become monuments, and in July the Grachtengordel the three concentric canals: In the early years of the 21st century, the Amsterdam city centre has attracted large numbers of tourists: Real estate prices have surged, and local shops are making way for tourist-oriented ones, making the centre unaffordable for the city's inhabitants.

    Construction of a metro line connecting the part of the city north of the river or lake IJ to the centre was started in The project is controversial because its cost had exceeded its budget by a factor three by , [50] because of fears of damage to buildings in the centre, and because construction had to be halted and restarted multiple times.

    Since , renewed focus has been given to urban regeneration and renewal, especially in areas directly bordering the city centre, such as Frederik Hendrikbuurt.

    This urban renewal and expansion of the traditional centre of the city—with the construction on artificial islands of the new eastern IJburg neighbourhood—is part of the Structural Vision Amsterdam initiative.

    Amsterdam is located in the Western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland , although it is not its capital which is Haarlem. The river Amstel ends in the city centre and connects to a large number of canals that eventually terminate in the IJ.

    Amsterdam is about 2 metres 6. A man-made forest, Amsterdamse Bos , is in the southwest. Amsterdam is intensely urbanised, as is the Amsterdam metropolitan area surrounding the city.

    Amsterdam has more than kilometres 60 miles of canals , most of which are navigable by boat. The city's three main canals are the Prinsengracht, Herengracht, and Keizersgracht.

    In the Middle Ages , Amsterdam was surrounded by a moat, called the Singel , which now forms the innermost ring in the city, and makes the city centre a horseshoe shape.

    The city is also served by a seaport. It has been compared with Venice , due to its division into about 90 islands, which are linked by more than 1, bridges.

    Amsterdam has an oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb strongly influenced by its proximity to the North Sea to the west, with prevailing westerly winds.

    Both winters and summers are considered mild, although winters can get quite cold, while summers are quite warm occasionally.

    Frosts mainly occur during spells of easterly or northeasterly winds from the inner European continent. Summers are moderately warm with a number of hot days every month.

    The average daily high in August is A large part of this precipitation falls as light rain or brief showers. Cloudy and damp days are common during the cooler months of October through March.

    Compared to other important towns in the County of Holland , such as Dordrecht , Leiden , Haarlem , Delft and Alkmaar , Amsterdam is a relatively young city.

    In stark contrast to the relative decline of those other towns, Amsterdam's population grew in the 15th and 16th centuries, mainly due to the rise of the profitable Baltic maritime trade after the Burgundian victory in the Dutch—Hanseatic War.

    Still, the population of Amsterdam and other towns in Holland was only modest compared to the towns and cities of Flanders and Brabant , which comprised the most urbanised area of the Low Countries.

    This changed when, during the Dutch Revolt , many people from the Southern Netherlands fled to the North, especially after Antwerp fell to Spanish forces in In thirty years, Amsterdam's population more than doubled from 41, inhabitants in to , inhabitants in During the s, Amsterdam's population reached , The city's growth levelled off and the population stabilised around , for most of the 18th century.

    At the turn of the 18th century, Amsterdam was the fourth largest city in Europe , behind Constantinople about , , London , and Paris , This was all the more remarkable as Amsterdam was neither the capital city nor the seat of government of the Dutch Republic , which itself was a much smaller state than England, France or the Ottoman Empire.

    In contrast to those other metropolises, Amsterdam was also surrounded by large towns such as Leiden about 67, , Rotterdam 45, , Haarlem 38, , and Utrecht 30, The city's population declined in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, dipping under , in By the second half of the 19th century, industrialisation spurred renewed growth.

    Amsterdam's population hit an all-time high of , in , before declining in the following decades due to government-sponsored suburbanisation to so-called groeikernen growth centres such as Purmerend and Almere.

    Between and , Amsterdam experienced its sharpest population decline ever, and by the city had only , residents.

    This was soon followed by reurbanisation and gentrification , however, leading to renewed population growth in the s.

    The Westphalians came to Amsterdam mostly for economic reasons — their influx continued through the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Just twenty per cent of them survived the Shoah. The first mass immigration in the 20th century were by people from Indonesia, who came to Amsterdam after the independence of the Dutch East Indies in the s and s.

    After the independence of Suriname in , a large wave of Surinamese settled in Amsterdam, mostly in the Bijlmer area. Other immigrants, including refugees asylum seekers and illegal immigrants , came from Europe, America , Asia, and Africa.

    In the s and s, many 'old' Amsterdammers moved to 'new' cities like Almere and Purmerend , prompted by the third planological bill of the Dutch government.

    This bill promoted suburbanisation and arranged for new developments in so-called "groeikernen", literally cores of growth.

    Young professionals and artists moved into neighbourhoods de Pijp and the Jordaan abandoned by these Amsterdammers.

    The non-Western immigrants settled mostly in the social housing projects in Amsterdam-West and the Bijlmer.

    Only one in three inhabitants under 15 is an autochtoon , or a person who has two parents of Dutch origin. In , the previously Roman Catholic city of Amsterdam joined the revolt against Spanish rule, late in comparison to other major northern Dutch cities.

    Following the Dutch takeover, all churches were converted to Protestant worship. Calvinism became the dominant religion, and although Catholicism was not forbidden and priests allowed to serve, the Catholic hierarchy was prohibited.

    This led to the establishment of schuilkerken , covert churches, behind seemingly ordinary canal side house fronts.

    One example is the current debate centre de Rode Hoed. A large influx of foreigners of many religions came to 17th-century Amsterdam, in particular Sefardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, Huguenots from France, and Protestants from the Southern Netherlands.

    This led to the establishment of many non-Dutch-speaking religious churches. In , the first notification was made of Jewish religious service.

    In , the first synagogue was consecrated. The Jews came to call the town Jerusalem of the West , a reference to their sense of belonging there.

    Religions in Amsterdam [73]. As they became established in the city, other Christian denominations used converted Catholic chapels to conduct their own services.

    The oldest English-language church congregation in the world outside the United Kingdom is found at the Begijnhof. Regular services there are still offered in English under the auspices of the Church of Scotland.

    Being Calvinists, they soon integrated into the Dutch Reformed Church , though often retaining their own congregations. Some, commonly referred by the moniker 'Walloon', are recognisable today as they offer occasional services in French.

    In the second half of the 17th century, Amsterdam experienced an influx of Ashkenazim , Jews from Central and Eastern Europe , which continued into the 19th century.

    Jews often fled the pogroms in those areas. They not only founded their own synagogues, but had a strong influence on the 'Amsterdam dialect' adding a large Yiddish local vocabulary.

    Despite an absence of an official Jewish ghetto , most Jews preferred to live in the eastern part of the old medieval heart of the city.

    The main street of this Jewish neighbourhood was the Jodenbreestraat. The neighbourhood comprised the Waterlooplein and the Nieuwmarkt. This led to riots, and as a result the original plans for large-scale reconstruction were abandoned and the neighbourhood was rebuilt with smaller-scale residence buildings on the basis of its original layout.

    Catholic churches in Amsterdam have been constructed since the restoration of the episcopal hierarchy in One of the principal architects behind the city's Catholic churches, Cuypers , was also responsible for the Amsterdam Central station and the Rijksmuseum , which led to a refusal of Protestant King William III to open 'that monastery'.

    In , the Roman Catholic Church of the Netherlands hosted the International Eucharistic Congress in Amsterdam, and numerous Catholic prelates visited the city, where festivities were held in churches and stadiums.

    Catholic processions on the public streets, however, were still forbidden under law at the time. Only in the 20th century was Amsterdam's relation to Catholicism normalised, but despite its far larger population size , the Catholic clergy chose to place its episcopal see of the city in the nearby provincial town of Haarlem.

    In recent times, religious demographics in Amsterdam have been changed by immigration from former colonies. Hinduism has been introduced from the Hindu diaspora from Suriname and several distinct branches of Islam have been brought from various parts of the world.

    Islam is now the largest non-Christian religion in Amsterdam. The large community of Ghanaian and Nigerian immigrants have established African churches, often in parking garages in the Bijlmer area, where many have settled.

    In addition, a broad array of other religious movements have established congregations, including Hinduism , and Buddhism. Amsterdam experienced an influx of religions and cultures after the Second World War.

    With different nationalities, [77] Amsterdam is home to one of the widest varieties of nationalities of any city in the world.

    Amsterdam has been one of the municipalities in the Netherlands which provided immigrants with extensive and free Dutch-language courses, which have benefited many immigrants.

    Amsterdam fans out south from the Amsterdam Centraal railway station and Damrak , the main street off the station. The oldest area of the town is known as De Wallen English: It lies to the east of Damrak and contains the city's famous red light district.

    To the south of De Wallen is the old Jewish quarter of Waterlooplein. The medieval and colonial age canals of Amsterdam , known as grachten , embraces the heart of the city where homes have interesting gables.

    Beyond the Grachtengordel are the former working class areas of Jordaan and de Pijp. The Museumplein with the city's major museums, the Vondelpark , a 19th-century park named after the Dutch writer Joost van den Vondel , and the Plantage neighbourhood, with the zoo , are also located outside the Grachtengordel.

    Several parts of the city and the surrounding urban area are polders. This can be recognised by the suffix -meer which means lake , as in Aalsmeer , Bijlmermeer , Haarlemmermeer , and Watergraafsmeer.

    The Amsterdam canal system is the result of conscious city planning. Known as the Grachtengordel , three of the canals were mostly for residential development: The Singelgracht should not be confused with the oldest and most inner canal Singel.

    The canals served for defence, water management and transport. The defences took the form of a moat and earthen dikes , with gates at transit points, but otherwise no masonry superstructures.

    Construction started in and proceeded from west to east, across the breadth of the layout, like a gigantic windshield wiper as the historian Geert Mak calls it — and not from the centre outwards, as a popular myth has it.

    The canal construction in the southern sector was completed by Subsequently, the construction of residential buildings proceeded slowly.

    The eastern part of the concentric canal plan, covering the area between the Amstel river and the IJ bay, has never been implemented. In the following centuries, the land was used for parks, senior citizens' homes, theatres, other public facilities, and waterways without much planning.

    After the development of Amsterdam's canals in the 17th century, the city did not grow beyond its borders for two centuries.

    During the 19th century, Samuel Sarphati devised a plan based on the grandeur of Paris and London at that time. The plan envisaged the construction of new houses, public buildings and streets just outside the Grachtengordel.

    The main aim of the plan, however, was to improve public health. Although the plan did not expand the city, it did produce some of the largest public buildings to date, like the Paleis voor Volksvlijt.

    Following Sarphati, civil engineers Jacobus van Niftrik and Jan Kalff designed an entire ring of 19th-century neighbourhoods surrounding the city's centre, with the city preserving the ownership of all land outside the 17th-century limit, thus firmly controlling development.

    In response to overcrowding, two plans were designed at the beginning of the 20th century which were very different from anything Amsterdam had ever seen before: Plan Zuid , designed by the architect Berlage , and West.

    These plans involved the development of new neighbourhoods consisting of housing blocks for all social classes.

    After the Second World War, large new neighbourhoods were built in the western, southeastern, and northern parts of the city.

    These new neighbourhoods were built to relieve the city's shortage of living space and give people affordable houses with modern conveniences. The neighbourhoods consisted mainly of large housing blocks situated among green spaces, connected to wide roads, making the neighbourhoods easily accessible by motor car.

    The western suburbs which were built in that period are collectively called the Westelijke Tuinsteden. The area to the southeast of the city built during the same period is known as the Bijlmer.

    Amsterdam has a rich architectural history. The oldest building in Amsterdam is the Oude Kerk English: Old Church , at the heart of the Wallen, consecrated in It was constructed around and is one of only two existing wooden buildings.

    It is also one of the few examples of Gothic architecture in Amsterdam. The oldest stone building of the Netherlands, The Moriaan is build in 's-Hertogenbosch.

    In the 16th century, wooden buildings were razed and replaced with brick ones. During this period, many buildings were constructed in the architectural style of the Renaissance.

    Amsterdam quickly developed its own Renaissance architecture. These buildings were built according to the principles of the architect Hendrick de Keyser.

    In the 17th century baroque architecture became very popular, as it was elsewhere in Europe. This roughly coincided with Amsterdam's Golden Age.

    Philip Vingboons designed splendid merchants' houses throughout the city. Throughout the 18th century, Amsterdam was heavily influenced by French culture.

    This is reflected in the architecture of that period. Around , architects broke with the baroque style and started building in different neo-styles.

    At the end of the 19th century, the Jugendstil or Art Nouveau style became popular and many new buildings were constructed in this architectural style.

    Since Amsterdam expanded rapidly during this period, new buildings adjacent to the city centre were also built in this style.

    The last style that was popular in Amsterdam before the modern era was Art Deco. Amsterdam had its own version of the style, which was called the Amsterdamse School.

    Whole districts were built this style, such as the Rivierenbuurt. The old city centre is the focal point of all the architectural styles before the end of the 19th century.

    Jugendstil and Georgian are mostly found outside the city's centre in the neighbourhoods built in the early 20th century, although there are also some striking examples of these styles in the city centre.

    Most historic buildings in the city centre and nearby are houses, such as the famous merchants' houses lining the canals. Amsterdam has many parks, open spaces and squares throughout the city.

    The Vondelpark , the largest park in the city, is located in the Oud-Zuid neighbourhood and is named after the 17th-century Amsterdam author Joost van den Vondel.

    Yearly, the park has around 10 million visitors. In the park is an open-air theatre, a playground and several horeca facilities. In the Zuid borough, is the Beatrixpark , named after Queen Beatrix.

    Other parks include the Sarphatipark in the De Pijp neighbourhood, the Oosterpark in the Oost borough and the Westerpark in the Westerpark neighbourhood.

    The city has three beaches: The city has many open squares plein in Dutch. The namesake of the city as the site of the original dam, Dam Square , is the main city square and has the Royal Palace and National Monument.

    Also, near to Amsterdam is the Nekkeveld estate conservation project. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.

    KPMG International's global headquarters is located in nearby Amstelveen, where many non-Dutch companies have settled as well, because surrounding communities allow full land ownership, contrary to Amsterdam's land-lease system.

    Though many small offices are still located on the old canals, companies are increasingly relocating outside the city centre.

    South Axis has become the new financial and legal hub. There are three other smaller financial districts in Amsterdam. The first is the area surrounding Amsterdam Sloterdijk railway station , where several newspapers like De Telegraaf have their offices.

    Also, Deloitte , the Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf municipal public transport company and the Dutch tax offices Belastingdienst are located there.

    The third is the area surrounding Amsterdam Amstel railway station. The tallest building in Amsterdam, the Rembrandt Tower , is situated there, as is the headquarters of Philips.

    The Port of Amsterdam is the fourth largest port in Europe, the 38th largest port in the world and the second largest port in the Netherlands by metric tons of cargo.

    Amsterdam has the biggest cruise port in the Netherlands with more than cruise ships every year. In the new lock in IJmuiden will open; the port will then be able to grow to million tonnes in capacity.

    It is near Dam Square in the city centre. Amsterdam is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, receiving more than 4. This can be attributed to an increasing number of European visitors.

    Two-thirds of the hotels are located in the city's centre. For example, the year was designated "Rembrandt ", to celebrate the th birthday of Rembrandt van Rijn.

    Some hotels offer special arrangements or activities during these years. The average number of guests per year staying at the four campsites around the city range from 12, to 65, De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is a designated area for legalised prostitution and is Amsterdam's largest and most well known red-light district.

    This neighbourhood has become a famous attraction for tourists. It consists of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights.

    Shops in Amsterdam range from large high end department stores such as De Bijenkorf founded in to small specialty shops. Amsterdam's high-end shops are found in the streets P.

    Hooftstraat and Cornelis Schuytstraat , which are located in the vicinity of the Vondelpark. One of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval Kalverstraat in the heart of the city.

    Other shopping areas include the Negen Straatjes and Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat. Negen Straatjes are nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel , the concentric canal system of Amsterdam.

    The Negen Straatjes differ from other shopping districts with the presence of a large diversity of privately owned shops. The Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk were voted best shopping street in the Netherlands in These streets have as the Negen Straatjes a large diversity of privately owned shops.

    But as the Negen Straatjes are dominated by fashion stores the Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk offer a very wide variety of all kinds of stores, just to name some specialties: The city also features a large number of open-air markets such as the Albert Cuyp Market , Westerstraat-markt, Ten Katemarkt, and Dappermarkt.

    Some of these markets are held on a daily basis, like the Albert Cuypmarkt and the Dappermarkt. Others, like the Westerstraatmarkt, are held on a weekly basis.

    Amsterdam has its garment centre in the World Fashion Center. Buildings which formerly housed brothels in the red light district have been converted to ateliers for young fashion designers, AKA eagle fuel.

    During the later part of the 16th-century Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer Chamber of rhetoric organised contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama.

    In , Amsterdam opened its first theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as In the 18th century, French theatre became popular.

    While Amsterdam was under the influence of German music in the 19th century there were few national opera productions; the Hollandse Opera of Amsterdam was built in for the specific purpose of promoting Dutch opera.

    At the end of this century, the Rijksmuseum and Stedelijk Museum were built. With the 20th century came cinema, radio and television.

    Many people who work in the television industry live in Amsterdam. The most important museums of Amsterdam are located on the Museumplein Museum Square , located at the southwestern side of the Rijksmuseum.

    It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds of the former World's fair. The northeastern part of the square is bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum.

    In front of the Rijksmuseum on the square itself is a long, rectangular pond. This is transformed into an ice rink in winter.

    The southwestern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat, which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam. The Concertgebouw is situated across this street from the square.

    To the southeast of the square are situated a number of large houses, one of which contains the American consulate.

    A parking garage can be found underneath the square, as well as a supermarket. The Museumplein is covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northeastern part of the square which is covered with gravel.

    The current appearance of the square was realised in , when the square was remodelled. The square itself is the most prominent site in Amsterdam for festivals and outdoor concerts, especially in the summer.

    Plans were made in to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of Amsterdam are not happy with its current appearance. The Rijksmuseum possesses the largest and most important collection of classical Dutch art.

    Its collection consists of nearly one million objects. Rembrandt's masterpiece The Night Watch is one of top pieces of art of the museum.

    Aside from paintings, the collection consists of a large variety of decorative art. This ranges from Delftware to giant doll-houses from the 17th century.

    The architect of the gothic revival building was P. The museum underwent a year, million euro renovation starting in The full collection was reopened to the public on 13 April and the Rijksmuseum has established itself as the most visited museum in Amsterdam with 2.

    Van Gogh lived in Amsterdam for a short while and there is a museum dedicated to his work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern buildings in this area of Amsterdam.

    The building was designed by Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is displayed. A new building was added to the museum in This building, known as the performance wing, was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa.

    Its purpose is to house temporary exhibitions of the museum. Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum. This is Amsterdam's most important museum of modern art.

    The museum is as old as the square it borders and was opened in The permanent collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan , Karel Appel , and Kazimir Malevich.

    After renovations lasting several years the museum opened in September with a new composite extension that has been called 'The Bathtub' due to its resemblance to one.

    Amsterdam contains many other museums throughout the city. The modern-styled Nemo is dedicated to child-friendly science exhibitions.

    Amsterdam's musical culture includes a large collection of songs which treat the city nostalgically and lovingly. The song "Aan de Amsterdamse grachten" "On the canals of Amsterdam" was performed and recorded by many artists, including John Kraaijkamp Sr.

    In the s Johnny Jordaan rose to fame with "Geef mij maar Amsterdam" "I prefer Amsterdam" , which praises the city above all others explicitly Paris ; Jordaan sang especially about his own neighbourhood, the Jordaan "Bij ons in de Jordaan".

    Its main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts for big audiences. Many famous international artists have performed there. Two other notable venues, Paradiso and the Melkweg are located near the Leidseplein.

    Jazz has a strong following in Amsterdam, with the Bimhuis being the premier venue. In , Ziggo Dome was opened, also near Amsterdam Arena, a state-of-the-art indoor music arena.

    AFAS Live is also host to many electronic dance music festivals, alongside many other venues. Each year in October, the city hosts the Amsterdam Dance Event ADE which is one of the leading electronic music conferences and one of the biggest club festivals for electronic music in the world, attracting over , visitors each year.

    Amsterdam has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. It is considered by critics to be a concert hall with some of the best acoustics in the world.

    Some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over ,, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world.

    Therefore, the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera , a word originally coined by protesters against it very construction: This huge modern complex, opened in , lies in the former Jewish neighbourhood at Waterlooplein next to the river Amstel.

    Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ is a concert hall, which is situated in the IJ near the central station. Its concerts perform mostly modern classical music.

    Located adjacent to it, is the Bimhuis , a concert hall for improvised and Jazz music. The Stadsschouwburg at the Leidseplein is the home base of Toneelgroep Amsterdam.

    The current building dates from Most plays are performed in the Grote Zaal Great Hall. The normal programme of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms.

    The Stadsschouwburg is currently being renovated and expanded. The third theatre space, to be operated jointly with next door Melkweg , will open in late or early The recently re-opened DeLaMar Theater houses the more commercial plays and musicals.

    A new theatre has also moved into Amsterdam scene in , joining other established venues: Theater Amsterdam is situated in the west part of Amsterdam, on the Danzigerkade.

    It is housed in a modern building with a panoramic view over the harbour. The theatre is the first ever purpose-built venue to showcase a single play entitled ANNE, the play based on Anne Frank's life.

    On the east side of town there is a small theatre in a converted bath house, the Badhuistheater. The theatre often has English programming.

    The Netherlands has a tradition of cabaret or kleinkunst , which combines music, storytelling, commentary, theatre and comedy. Cabaret dates back to the s and artists like Wim Kan , Wim Sonneveld and Toon Hermans were pioneers of this form of art in the Netherlands.

    In Amsterdam is the Kleinkunstacademie English: The English spoken comedy scene was established with the founding of Boom Chicago in They have their own theatre at Leidseplein.

    Amsterdam is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. They range from large and modern to small and cozy. A common sight on the Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine.

    Many restaurants can be found in Amsterdam as well. Since Amsterdam is a multicultural city, a lot of different ethnic restaurants can be found.

    Restaurants range from being rather luxurious and expensive to being ordinary and affordable. The two main nightlife areas for tourists are the Leidseplein and the Rembrandtplein.

    Bimhuis located near the Central Station, with its rich programming hosting the best in the field is considered one of the best jazz clubs in the world.

    In , there were festivals and events in Amsterdam. Famous festivals and events in Amsterdam include: On Koninginnedag—that was held each year on 30 April—hundreds of thousands of people travel to Amsterdam to celebrate with the city's residents and Koningsdag is held on 27 April.

    The entire city becomes overcrowded with people buying products from the freemarket, or visiting one of the many music concerts. The yearly Holland Festival attracts international artists and visitors from all over Europe.

    It offers previews of many different artists, such as musicians and poets, who perform on podia. The stadium Johan Cruyff Arena is the home of Ajax.

    It is located in the south-east of the city next to the new Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA railway station. Before moving to their current location in , Ajax played their regular matches in De Meer Stadion.

    The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events, such as the Amsterdam Marathon.

    The ice hockey team Amstel Tijgers play in the Jaap Eden ice rink. The team competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league.

    Speed skating championships have been held on the metre lane of this ice rink. Amsterdam holds two American football franchises: There are three field hockey teams: The basketball team MyGuide Amsterdam competes in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid.

    Since the city of Amsterdam honours the best sportsmen and women at the Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards, in The city of Amsterdam is a municipality under the Dutch Municipalities Act.

    It is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a mayor.

    Since , the municipality of Amsterdam has gradually been divided into semi-autonomous boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts'.

    Over time, a total of 15 boroughs were created.

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